via discoverynews

It’s a great big sketchy world out there!



via discoverynews

It’s a great big sketchy world out there!

(via thedarkshallemerge)


Does animal testing help human medicine?

  1. Less than 2% of human illnesses (1.16%) are ever seen in animals.  Over 98% never affect animals.

  2. According to the former scientific executive of Huntingdon Life Sciences, animal tests and human results agree “5%-25% of the time.”

  3. Among the hundreds of techniques available instead of animal experiments, cell culture toxicology methods give accuracy rates of 80-85%

  4. 92% of drugs passed by animal tests immediately fail when first tried on humans because they’re useless, dangerous or both.

  5. The two most common illnesses in the Western world are lung cancer from smoking and heart disease.  Neither can be reproduced in lab animals.

  6. A 2004 survey of doctors in the UK showed that 83% wanted a independent scientific evaluation of whether animal experiments had relevance to human patients.  Less than 1 in 4 (21%) had more confidence in animal tests than in non-animal methods.

  7. Rats are 37% effective in identifying what causes cancer to humans – less use than guessing.  The experimenters said: “we would have been better off to have tossed a coin.”

  8. Rodents are the animals almost always used in cancer research. They never get carcinomas, the human form of cancer, which affects membranes (eg lung cancer). Their sarcomas affect bone and connective tissue: the two are completely different.

  9. The results from animal tests are routinely altered radically by diet, light, noise, temperature, lab staff and bedding. Bedding differences caused cancer rates of over 90% and almost zero in the same strain of mice at different labs.

  10. Sex differences among lab animals can cause contradictory results. This does not correspond with humans.

  11. 75% of side effects identified in animals never occur.

  12. Over half of side effects cannot be detected in lab animals.

  13. Vioxx was shown to protect the heart of mice, dogs, monkeys and other lab animals.  It was linked to heart attacks and strokes in up to 139,000 humans.

  14. Genetically modified animals are not like humans. The mdx mouse is supposed to have muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate with no treatment.

  15. GM animal the CF- mouse never gets fluid infections in the lungs – the cause of death for 95% of human cystic fibrosis patients.

  16. In America, 106,000 deaths a year are attributed to reactions to medical drugs.

  17. Each year 2.1 million Americans are hospitalised by medical treatment.

  18. In the UK an estimated 70,000 people are killed or severely disabled every year by unexpected reactions to drugs.  All these drugs have passed animal tests.

  19. In the UKs House Of Lords questions have been asked regarding why unexpected reactions to drugs (which  passed animal tests) kill more people than cancer.

  20. A German doctors’ congress concluded that 6% of fatal illnesses and 25% of organic illness are caused by medicines. All have been animal tested.

  21. According to a thorough study, 88% of stillbirths are caused by drugs which passed animal tests.

  22. 61% of birth defects were found to have the same cause.

  23. 70% of drugs which cause human birth defects are safe in pregnant monkeys.

  24. 78% of foetus-damaging chemicals can be detected by one non-animal test.

  25. Thousands of safe products cause birth defects in lab animals – including water, several vitamins, vegetable oils, oxygen and drinking waters.  Of more than 1000 substances dangerous in lab animals, over 97% are safe in humans.

  26. One of the most common lifesaving operation (for ectopic pregnancies) was delayed 40 years by vivisection.

  27. The great Dr Hadwen noted “had animal experiments been relied upon…humanity would have been robbed of this great blessing of anaesthesia.”

  28. Aspirin fails animal tests, as do digitalis (heart drug), cancer drugs, insulin (which causes animal birth defects), penicillin and other safe medicines. They would be banned if vivisection were believed.

  29. Blood transfusions were delayed 200 years by animal studies.

  30. The polio vaccine was delayed 40 years by monkey tests.

  31. 30 HIV vaccines, 33 spinal cord damage drugs, and over 700 treatments for stroke have been developed in animals.  None work in humans.

  32. Despite many Nobel prizes going to vivisectors, only 45% agree that animal experiments are crucial.

  33. The Director of Research Defence Society, (which serves only to defend vivisection) was asked if medical progress could have been achieved without animal use. His written reply was “I am sure it could be.”

Vivisection Information

(Source: i---ickk, via uglyuglyugly)

“The average American baby is born with 10 fingers, 10 toes and the highest recorded levels of flame retardants among infants in the world.” So begins a 4-part Chicago Tribune series about flame retardants and the science - or lack thereof - behind them. According to the series, the health hazards of flame retardants have been brushed over in favor of the science supporting them. That science, however, appears increasingly flimsy and manipulated for profit. The Tribune’s website includes the series as well as multimedia and original documentation - click here to check it out. (via sciencecenter)

(Source:, via sciencecenter)



inFact: Cell Phones on Airplanes

Is it actually dangerous to use cell phones or other portable electronics on board an aircraft?

(Source:, via scientiflix)


Herd Thinking – Scientific American debunks the vaccines / Autism mythology in a necessary comic. Also see Bill Gates on vaccines, animated.


Herd Thinking – Scientific American debunks the vaccines / Autism mythology in a necessary comic. Also see Bill Gates on vaccines, animated.

(Source: , via explore-blog)


You Can Run From Science But You Can’t Hide From Inference


Science can’t disprove religion. In fact, science can’t disprove any supernatural idea. It’s at this point that many theists would be happy to celebrate and claim victory over empiricism but simply because science has nothing to say about the matter doesn’t mean that no rational inquiry need apply.

For instance, science can demonstrate that the world doesn’t appear to be 6000 years old but it can’t disprove what is sometimes called the Omphalos hypothesis, the idea that the Universe was created by God with features that made it appear older than it was. So, the creationist would say, the Earth seems to be billions of years old and species seem to have evolved largely through natural selection but God only made it look like that way. Appealing to God like this isn’t predictive, unless you are to argue because you know the mind of God that it had to create a universe that appears as ours does, so whatever universe we do observe is just one of an infinite possible number of theistic universes because God could theoretically make the universe appear any age. This means the appeal to God has not narrowed our expectations of the apparent age of the universe but merely appealed to one of an infinite number of scenarios. Contrarily the age of stars, the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble’s law, etc. all independently serve to predict the age of our universe to be within a limited range and the fact they all converge on a similar age greatly reduces the array of possible answers for the actual age.

If, as a friend of mine likes to say, you know you have a rolled a three on a die and you posses only a four-sided die and a twenty-sided die which die is it more likely to that you rolled? Obviously it is the four sided die and it would only become more likely if you instead possessed only a four-sided die and a hundred-sided die. Expanding the larger die out to be infinite-sided, as supernatural explanations do, doesn’t mean that you can no longer reason about which is more probable. Quite the contrary, it becomes vastly more likely that the result is from the die with less possible outcomes.

What this analogy highlights is any supernatural solution to disconfirming evidence which places that theory firmly outside of the field of science just appeals to a “explanation” which is not predictive and infinite in scope which must be weighed against more limited range of natural predictive explanations which would explain the phenomena. This same principle holds for claims that psi-phenomena do exist or that prayer does work but only when they aren’t tested, that species only seemed to have evolved and existed based upon survival and so on for every attempt to explain away why our observations don’t match up with a supernatural phenomena. So just because you can never demonstrate using science that the entire universe wasn’t created last Thursday that certainly doesn’t mean it’s probable or reasonable to conclude that it was.

(via doubtingmarcus-deactivated20140)



Secondhand Smoke and Lung Cancer

I just wanted to share some recent research on the topic of second hand smoke and lung cancer in people who have never smoked. It was a topic of interest to me at AACR and I had a chance to meet one of the authors of the 2009 paper.

Int J Cancer. 2004 Mar;109(1):125-31.
Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a pooled analysis of two large studies.

Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Sep 15;15(18):5626-45.
Lung cancer in never smokers: clinical epidemiology and environmental risk factors.

There’s an error in the video. I refer to one of the papers (CCR) as being published in 2011, when it was actually published in 2009. The author’s manuscript was published online in 2011, two years after the print version.

(Source:, via scientiflix)

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